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What Is Anisocytosis?

by Sarah Syakira
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Anisocytosis is the medical term for the size of the abnormal red blood cells. Usually, the size of the red blood cells is the same, but sometimes a person has a health problem where the red blood cells are not the same size, this is called anisocytosis.

Usually this anisocytosis problem occurs due to a person having problems such as anemia, it can also be caused by other diseases or due to consuming cancer cure drugs.

So how is anisocytosis treated? Treatment and care given depends on the cause of the anisocytosis. This situation is actually not dangerous, but it shows that there are abnormalities in his health.

Symptoms of Anisocytosis

The symptoms experienced by sufferers are also different, this also depends on the cause of the anisocytosis, the symptoms could be:

  • Red blood cells have a larger size (macrocytosis)
  • It could be that the red blood cells are smaller than normal (microcytosis), or
  • Both are obtained, some cells are larger and some cells are smaller than normal conditions.

The main symptom of anisocytosis is anemia, and it can also be followed by other symptoms such as:

  • Weakness,
  • Tired,
  • Hard to breathe,
  • Skin looks pale

Most of these symptoms occur because of the reduced amount of oxygen sent to all organs of the body.

Finally, anisocytosis is considered a problem that occurs due to red blood cell disorders.

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Causes of Anisocytosis

After we know the symptoms, then what causes this Anisocytosis?

In general, anisocytosis is caused by a health condition, namely anemia. In cases of anemia sufferers, red blood cells cannot carry oxygen to be distributed to all organs of the body. It could be the result of too few red blood cells, or it could be because they don’t have enough hemoglobin.

Can all anemia cause irregular red blood cells? We need to know, there are several types of anemia that can cause anisocytosis, including:

1. Anemia due to iron deficiency

This is a very common form or model of anemia. The occurrence of anemia is due to iron deficiency. It could be due to a lot of lack of blood due to accidents or from lack of foods containing iron. This causes microcytic Anisocytosis.

2. Sickle cell anemia

It is called sickle cell anemia because people with this disease have a red blood cell shape like a crescent shape. This is a condition of abnormal red blood cells.

3. Autoimmune hemolytic anemias

This occurs when the immune system mistakenly destroys red blood cells.

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4. Thalassemia

This occurs because the body makes abnormal hemoglobin and this is considered a congenital blood disorder. This condition usually causes microcytic anisocytosis.

5. Pernicious anemia

Pernecious is a type of macrocytic anemia, this type of anemia occurs because the body is unable to absorb vitamin B12. This is also called an autoimmune disorder.

6. Megaloblastic anemia

This is called Megaloblastic anemia when their blood cell count is lower than normal and the red blood cell size becomes larger than normal.

Other disorders that can cause anisocytosis are:

  • Myelodysplastic syndrome
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Thyroid disorders

In other conditions, anemia also occurs as a result of using certain drugs to treat cancer, or commonly known as cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, which can cause anisocytosis.

Anisocytosis is a health condition that can sometimes occur in those with cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer.

Diagnosing Anisocytosis

Diagnosis of anisocytosis is usually done when you check your blood. When examining the blood, the doctor will take a small amount of blood and spread it on a microscope slide. Then this blood is colored, the goal is to be able to see the blood cells with the help of a microscope. Well, in this way the doctor will know how blood cells form and how they are sized. Is the size the same as usual, or bigger than usual or smaller.

If after the examination it turns out that you have anisocytosis, then usually the doctor will do more diagnoses on your health to find out what causes your red blood cells to not be the same size.

It could be, the doctor will ask about your family’s medical history. Likewise, have you ever consumed a particular drug so far. So, answer honestly so that the doctor knows the cause.

Other diagnostic tests are:

  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Ferritin test
  • Serum iron levels
  • Folate test, and
  • B vitamin test

How to Treat Anisocytosis

Of course before treating this disease, the doctor will see the cause. If you know the cause, then anisocytosis will be treated according to the cause. For example, the cause is a diet low in vitamin B 12, iron and folate, so you will likely be treated by taking supplements to increase the amount of vitamin deficiency.

While other types of anemia, such as sickle cell anemia and others, of course treatment will also be different. They may need blood transfusions, or people with anemia of the myelodysplastic syndrome type will be treated with a bone marrow transplant.

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